Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidated financial statements, which are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
Use of Estimates
In the preparation of consolidated financial statements, management may make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include right-of-use assets and lease liabilities; impairment of goodwill, intangible, right-of-use and fixed assets; environmental assets and liabilities; deferred tax assets; and asset retirement obligations.
Foreign Currency Translation
Transactions and balances that are denominated in currencies that differ from the functional currencies have been remeasured into US dollars in accordance with principles set forth in ASC 830, Foreign Currency Matters. At each balance sheet date, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. All exchange gains and losses from the remeasurement mentioned above are reflected in the statement of operations as financial expenses or income, as appropriate.
The revenues of the Company and most of its subsidiaries are generated in US dollars. In addition, most of the costs of the Company and most of its subsidiaries are incurred in US dollars. The Company’s management believes that the US dollar is the primary currency of the economic environment in which the Company and most of its subsidiaries operate. Thus, the functional currency of the Company and most of its subsidiaries is the US dollar.
For subsidiaries whose functional currency has been determined to be other than the US dollar, assets and liabilities are translated at year-end exchange rates, and statement of operations items are translated at average exchange rates prevailing during the year. Resulting translation differences are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in equity.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase, which are not restricted, to be cash equivalents, of which there were $0.7 million and $102.4 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, $0.7 million and $35.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, respectively, were denominated in New Israeli Shekels (“NIS”). Cash and cash equivalents are maintained at financial institutions.
The Company classifies as restricted cash any cash and cash equivalents that are currently restricted from use in order to comply with agreements with third parties, including cash related to net lottery proceeds.
Restricted Cash with Respect to Bonds
The Company classified designated cash for specific use only in accordance with the provisions as established in the deed of trust governing the Bonds (Series C), as defined in Note 12 below, as restricted cash with respect to bonds. These amounts were deposited in a financial institution as Reserved Principal and Interest and were intended for use according to the deed of trust governing the Bonds (Series C). The designated cash was classified as current assets and non-current assets according to the date on which the Company was expected to use the balances or according to the nature of the assets to which they were designated. As of December 31, 2020, $2.8 million of restricted cash with respect to the bonds was denominated in NIS. On March 30, 2021, Arko Holdings exercised its right to fully redeem the Bonds (Series C).
The majority of trade receivables are typically from independent dealers, customer credit accounts and credit card companies in the ordinary course of business. Balances due in respect of credit cards processed through the Company’s fuel suppliers and other providers are collected within two to three days depending upon the day of the week of the purchase and time of day of the purchase. Receivables from independent dealers and customer credit accounts are typically due within two to 10 days and are stated as amounts due. Accounts that are outstanding longer than the payment terms are considered past due.
At each balance sheet date, the Company recognizes a loss allowance for expected credit losses on trade receivables. The amount of expected credit losses is updated at each reporting date to reflect changes in credit risk since initial recognition of the respective financial instrument. The expected credit losses on trade receivables are estimated based on historical credit loss experience, adjusted for factors that are specific to the debtors, general economic conditions and an assessment of both the current as well as the forecasted direction of conditions at the reporting date, including time value of money where appropriate. The expected credit loss is estimated as the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the
contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at the original effective interest rate, as long as the discount impact is material. The Company records an impairment gain or loss in profit or loss for all financial instruments with a corresponding adjustment to their carrying amount through a loss allowance account.
The Company writes off receivable amounts when there is information indicating that the debtor is in severe financial difficulty and there is no realistic prospect of recovery, e.g. when the debtor has been placed under liquidation or has entered into bankruptcy proceedings. Financial assets written off may still be subject to enforcement activities under the Company’s recovery procedures, taking into account legal advice where appropriate. Any recoveries made are recognized in profit or loss. The Company has not experienced significant write-offs for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventory cost is determined using the average cost, net of vendor rebates or discounts in the event that they can be attributed to inventory, using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis, which approximates the actual cost of the inventory. The net realizable value is an estimate of the sales price in the ordinary course of business less an estimate of the costs required in order to execute the sale. The Company periodically reviews inventory for obsolescence and records a charge to merchandise costs for any amounts required to reduce the carrying value of inventories to net realizable value.
Investments consist primarily of US Treasury and other investment grade securities with maturities no longer than one year and certain interest-bearing cash deposits. Investments are considered held-to-maturity and carried at amortized cost. When applicable, the cost of securities sold will be based on the specific identification method. Approximately $31.8 million investments at December 31, 2021 and 2020 secured 98% of the outstanding principal amount of the GPMP PNC Term Loan as defined and described in Note 12 below, and will secure this balance until the loan is fully repaid. As a result, this amount was classified as a current asset at December 31, 2021 and a non-current asset at December 30, 2020.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost or, if acquired through a business combination, at the fair value of the assets as of the acquisition date, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged directly to expense when incurred and major improvements are capitalized. Depreciation is recognized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets as follows:
Amortization of leasehold improvements is recorded using the straight-line method based upon the shorter of the remaining terms of the leases including renewal periods that are reasonably assured or the estimated useful lives.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, right-of-use assets and amortizable intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If a review indicates that the assets will not be recoverable, based on the expected undiscounted net cash flows of the related asset, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent carrying value of the assets exceeds their estimated fair value and the asset’s carrying value is reduced to fair value. Impairment losses related to property and equipment and right-of-use assets of $3.2 million, $4.7 million and $5.1 million were recorded in relation to closed and non-performing sites as an expense within other expenses, net in the consolidated statements of operations during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. No impairment was recognized for long-lived intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations, and allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible and intangible assets acquired, and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. When determining the fair
values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, management makes significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. In subsequent periods, the goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
If, after reassessment, the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the sum of the consideration transferred, the excess is recognized immediately within other expenses, net in the consolidated statements of operations as a gain on bargain purchase.
When the consideration transferred in a business combination includes assets or liabilities resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement, the contingent consideration is measured at its acquisition-date fair value and included as part of the consideration transferred in a business combination.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over fair value of net assets of businesses acquired. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each reporting unit (or groups of reporting units) expected to benefit from the synergies of the business combination. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recorded at fair value as of the date acquired. Amortization of finite lived intangible assets is provided using the straight-line method of amortization over the estimated useful lives of the intangible assets as follows:
Goodwill is reviewed annually for impairment, or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist, such as disruptions in the business, unexpected significant declines in operating results or a sustained market capitalization decline. In the goodwill impairment test, the reporting unit’s carrying amount (including goodwill) and its fair value are compared. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, an impairment charge is recognized for the deficit up to the amount of goodwill recorded.
The Company has historically tested goodwill for impairment as of December 31 for each fiscal year; however, in 2021, the Company changed the date of its annual goodwill impairment test to October 1 for operational expediency and to align its testing date with the convention of its public company peers. The Company does not believe that this change in goodwill impairment testing date represents a material change in accounting principle as the change did not have a material effect to the consolidated financial statements in light of the continuing requirement to assess goodwill impairment in the presence of certain indicators.
The Company completed the annual impairment analyses for goodwill for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, and no impairment was recognized.
These consolidated financial statements reflect the application of ASC 810, Consolidation, which establishes accounting and reporting standards that require: (i) the ownership interest in subsidiaries held by parties other than the parent to be clearly identified and presented in the consolidated balance sheet within shareholders’ equity, but separate from the parent’s equity, (ii) the amount of consolidated net income attributable to the parent and the non-controlling interest to be clearly identified and presented on the face of the consolidated statements of operations, and (iii) changes in a parent’s ownership interest while the parent retains its controlling financial interest in its subsidiary to be accounted for consistently.
The Company’s investments in GPM (until the purchase of the GPM Minority on the Merger Closing Date as described in Note 1 above) and GPMP (until the purchase of the third parties’ interests in GPMP on December 21, 2020 as described in Note 3 below) were accounted for under the method of accounting referred to as the hypothetical liquidation at book value method for allocating the profits and losses. In accordance with this method, profits and losses are allocated between the Company and the non-controlling interest assuming at the end of the reporting period, GPM and GPMP would liquidate or distribute its assets and redeem its liabilities at their book value.
Until December 21, 2020, due to the terms of GPMP’s Agreement of Limited Partnership, and the preference provided to the one of the third party investors in the monthly distributions of GPMP as well as in liquidation, the investor’s investment was classified in the consolidated statements of changes in equity as ‘Non-controlling interests.’ A non-controlling interest was also recorded for the interests owned by the seller of the Fuel USA sites and the seller of the Riiser sites (the “Riiser Seller”).
For equity investments that are not required to be consolidated, the Company evaluates the level of influence it is able to exercise over an entity’s operations to determine whether to use the equity method of accounting. Equity investments for which the Company determines that the Company has significant influence are accounted for as equity method investment. The Company evaluates its equity method investment presented for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of such investment may be impaired.
Since January 2014, the Company has held joint control (50%) of Ligad Investments and Construction Ltd. (“Ligad”), which is presented on the Company’s books using the equity method of accounting. As of December 31, 2021, Ligad owed the Company approximately $1.0 million, bearing interest at the prime rate plus 1%, and payable on December 31, 2022.
In September 2020, Ligad entered into an agreement with a third party for the lease of the properties held by it for a period of three years beginning March 1, 2021, in consideration of an annual payment of approximately $0.4 million and granted another third party an option, exercisable until , to purchase the leased properties for consideration for approximately $8.5 million plus value-added taxes, from which the lease payments received will be deducted.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). These valuation techniques involve some level of management estimation and judgment, the degree of which is dependent on the item being valued.
Significant estimates of fair value include, among other items, tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed through business combinations, certain leases, contingent consideration in business combinations, the Public Warrants (as defined below), the Private Warrants (as defined below), the Deferred Shares (as defined below) and the Ares Put Option (as defined below). The Company also uses fair value measurements to routinely assess impairment of long-lived assets, intangible assets and goodwill.
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the customers. This requires the Company to identify contractual performance obligations and determine whether revenue should be recognized at a single point in time or over time, based on when control of goods and services transfers to a customer. Control is transferred to the customer over time if the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company’s performance. If a performance obligation is not satisfied over time, the Company satisfies the performance obligation at a single point in time.
Revenue is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for goods or services.
When the Company satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of goods or services to the customer, revenue is recognized against contract assets in the amount of consideration for which the Company is entitled. When the consideration amount received from the customer exceeds the amounts recognized as revenue, the Company recognizes a contract liability for the excess.
An asset is recognized related to the costs incurred to obtain a contract (i.e. sales commissions) if the costs are specifically identifiable to a contract, the costs will result in enhancing resources that will be used in satisfying performance obligations in future and the costs are expected to be recovered. These capitalized costs are recorded as a part of other current assets and other non-current assets and are amortized on a systematic basis consistent with the pattern of transfer of the goods or services to which such costs relate. The Company expenses the costs to obtain a contract, as and when they are incurred, in cases where the expected amortization period is one year or less.
The Company evaluates if it is a principal or an agent in a transaction to determine whether revenue should be recorded on a gross or a net basis. In performing this analysis, the Company considers first whether it controls the goods before they are transferred to the customers and if it has the ability to direct the use of the goods or obtain benefits from them. The Company also considers the following indicators: (1) the primary obligor, (2) the latitude in establishing prices and selecting suppliers, and (3) the inventory risk borne by the Company before and after the goods have been transferred to the customer. When the Company acts as principal, revenue is recorded on a gross basis. When the Company acts as agent, revenue is recorded on a net basis.
Certain fuel and sales taxes are invoiced by fuel suppliers or collected from customers and remitted to governmental agencies either directly, or through suppliers, by the Company. Whether these taxes are presented on a gross or net basis is dependent on whether the Company is acting as a principal or agent in the sales transaction. Fuel excise taxes are presented on a gross basis for fuel sales because the Company is acting as the primary obligor, has pricing latitude, and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks. Fuel revenue and fuel cost of revenue included fuel taxes of $1,004.8 million, $584.6 million and $500.1 million for 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Revenue recognition patterns are described below by reportable segment:
Fuel revenue and merchandise revenue—Revenues from the sale of merchandise and fuel less discounts given and returns are recognized upon delivery, which is the point at which control and title is transferred, the customer has accepted the product and the customer has significant risks and rewards of owning the product. The Company typically has a right to payment once control of the product is transferred to the customer. Transaction prices for these products are typically at market rates for the product at the time of delivery. Payment terms require customers to pay shortly after delivery and do not contain significant financing components.
Customer loyalty program—The customer loyalty program provides the Company’s customers rights to purchase products at a lower price or at no cost in future periods. The sale of products in accordance with the loyalty program are recognized as multiple performance obligations. The consideration for the sale is allocated to each performance obligation identified in the contract (the actual purchases and the future purchases) on a relative stand-alone selling price basis. Revenue for the rights granted is deferred and recognized on the date on which the Company completes its obligations in respect thereof or when it expires. The related contract liability for the customer loyalty program was approximately $1.5 million and $1.2 million as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively, and was included in other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Commissions on sales of lottery products, money orders and prepaid value cards—The Company recognizes a commission on the sale of lottery products, money orders, and sales of prepaid value cards (gift or cash cards) at the time of the sale to the consumer.
GPMP recognizes revenue upon delivery of the fuel to GPM and its subsidiaries selling fuel (both in the retail and wholesale segments) and is eliminated in consolidation.
Consignment arrangements—In arrangements of this type, the Company continues to be the owner of the fuel until the date of sale to the final customer (the consumer). In these arrangements, the gross profit which is created from the sale of the fuel is allocated between the Company and the independent dealer based on the terms of the relevant agreement with the independent dealer. The Company recognizes revenues on the date of the sale to the final customer (namely, upon dispensing of the fuel by the consumer which is the date of transfer of control, risks and rewards to the final customer).
Fuel supply arrangements (“Cost Plus”)—In arrangements of this type, the independent dealer purchases the fuel from the Company. The Company recognizes revenue upon delivery of the fuel to the independent dealer (executed by an outside delivery company) which is the date of transfer of ownership of the fuel to the independent dealer. In arrangements of this type, the sales price to the independent dealer is determined according to the terms of the relevant agreement with the independent dealer, which generally includes a stated price of the fuel plus the cost of transportation, prompt pay discounts, rebates and a margin.
Refer to Note 22 for disclosure of the revenue disaggregated by segment and product line, as well as a description of the reportable segment operations.
Fuel Costs and Merchandise Costs
The Company records discounts and rebates received from suppliers as a reduction of inventory cost if the discount or rebate is based upon purchases or to merchandise costs if the discount relates to product sold. Discounts and rebates conditional upon the volume of the purchases or on meeting certain other goals are included in the consolidated financial statements on a basis relative to the progress toward the goals required to obtain a discount or rebate, as long as receiving the discounts or rebates is reasonably assured and its amount can be reasonably estimated. The estimate of meeting the goals is based, among other things, on contract terms and historical purchases/sales as compared to required purchases/sales.
The Company includes in fuel costs all costs incurred to acquire fuel, including the costs of purchasing and transporting inventory prior to delivery to customers. The Company does not own transportation equipment and utilizes third-party carriers to transport fuel inventory to the retail location. Fuel costs do not include any depreciation of property and equipment as there are no significant amounts that could be attributed to fuel costs. Accordingly, depreciation is separately classified in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company recognizes merchandise vendor rebates based upon the period of time in which it has completed the unit purchases and/or sales as specified in the merchandise vendor agreements. The Company records such rebates as a reduction of merchandise costs.
Certain upfront amounts paid by merchandise suppliers are presented as a liability and are recorded to operations as a reduction of merchandise costs on a straight-line basis relative to the period of the agreement. In the event that the Company does not comply with the conditions of the agreement with the supplier, the Company may be required to repay the unamortized balance of the amount received based on the amortization schedule as defined in each agreement with the merchandise suppliers. These amounts are classified in other non-current liabilities, except for the current maturity which is classified in other current liabilities.
Amounts paid to the Company by fuel suppliers for renovation and upgrade costs associated with the rebranding of gas stations are presented as a liability and are recorded to operations as a periodic reduction of fuel costs on a straight-line basis relative to the period of the agreement. In the event that the Company does not comply with the conditions of the agreement with the supplier, the Company may be required to repay the unamortized balance of the grant to the supplier, based on the amortization schedule as defined in each applicable agreement. These grants are classified in other non-current liabilities, except for the current maturity which is classified in other current liabilities.
Total purchases from suppliers who accounted for 10% or more of total purchases for the periods presented were as follows:
Environmental expenditures related to existing conditions, resulting from past or current operations and from which no current or future benefit is discernible, are expensed. A liability for environmental matters is established when it is probable that an environmental obligation exists and the cost can be reasonably estimated. If there is a range of reasonably estimated costs, the most likely amount will be recorded, or if no amount is most likely, the minimum of the range is used. Related expenditures are charged against the liability. Expenditures that extend the life of the related property or prevent future environmental contamination are capitalized.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs, net of co-op advertising reimbursement from certain vendors/suppliers, for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 were $4.4 million, $3.8 million and $4.0 million, respectively, and were included in store operating and general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
Income taxes are accounted for under the provisions of ASC 740, Income Taxes. Current and deferred taxes are recognized in profit or loss, except when they arise from the initial accounting for a business acquisition, in which case the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business acquisition. The current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax is provided using the asset and liability method on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts. Deferred tax assets are recognized for future tax benefits and credit carryforwards to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date. Deferred tax liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted by the end of the reporting periods. After determining the total amount of deferred tax assets, a determination is made as to whether it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
If it is determined that a deferred tax asset is not likely to be realized, a valuation allowance is established. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if the Company had a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax relates to the same taxable entity and the same tax authority.
GPM is taxed as a partnership for US federal and certain state jurisdiction for income tax purposes. Certain subsidiaries of GPM are taxed as a corporation for US federal and state income tax purposes. The taxable income and loss from all activities of GPM, excluding the activities of GPM’s subsidiaries which are taxed as a corporation for US federal purposes, are included in the taxable income or loss of GPM’s members, including Arko Convenience Stores, LLC (“ACS”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Arko Holdings. As a result, current and deferred taxes reflected in the consolidated financial statements until the Merger Closing Date did not include the income or loss allocated to GPM members other than ACS.
Uncertain tax positions meeting the more likely than not recognition threshold are measured and recognized in the consolidated financial statements at the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement.
The Company classifies interest and penalties related to income tax matters as a component of income tax expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, by dividing net income (loss) attributable to the Company by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share are calculated, if applicable, by adjusting net income (loss) attributable to the Company and the weighted average number of common shares, taking into effect all potential dilutive common shares.
ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation, requires the cost of all share-based payments to employees to be recognized in the statement of operations and establishes fair value as the measurement objective in accounting for share-based payment arrangements. ASC 718 requires the use of a valuation model to calculate the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant.
Restricted share units are valued based on the fair market value of the underlying stock on the date of grant. The Company records compensation expense for these awards based on the grant date fair value of the award, recognized ratably over the vesting period of the award.
The Company recognizes compensation expense related to stock-based awards with graded vesting on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The Company’s share-based compensation expense is adjusted for forfeitures when they are incurred.
The Company has a 401(k) retirement plan for its employees who may contribute up to 75% of eligible wages as defined in the plan, subject to limitations defined in the plan and applicable law. The Company matches a percentage of employee contributions according to the plan, subject to applicable law. The expense for matching contributions was approximately $1.4 million, $0.2 million and $0.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company as Lessee
The Company assesses whether a contract is, or contains, a lease at inception of the contract. A contract contains a lease on the basis of whether the Company has the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. While assessing whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company assesses whether, throughout the period of use, it has both of the following:
the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the identified assets; and
the right to direct the use of the identified asset.
The lease term is the non-cancellable period of a lease together with periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the Company is reasonably certain it will exercise that option.
In assessing the lease term, the Company takes into account extension options that, at initial recognition, it is reasonably certain that it will exercise. The likelihood of the exercise of the extension options is examined considering, among other things, the lease payments during the extension periods in relation to the market prices, significant improvements in the leased properties that are
expected to have a significant economic benefit during the extension period, actual profitability characteristics and expected profitability of the sites, the remaining non-cancellable period, the number of years under the extension periods, location of the leased property and the availability of suitable alternatives.
Because the interest rate implicit in the lease cannot be readily determined, the Company generally utilizes the incremental borrowing rates of the Company. These rates are defined as the interest rates that the Company would have to pay, on the commencement date of the lease, to borrow, over a similar term and with a similar security, the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value to the right-of-use asset in the lease agreement and in a similar economic environment.
Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability consist of:
fixed lease payments (including in-substance fixed payments), including those in extension option periods which are reasonably certain to be exercised;
variable lease payments that depend on an index, initially measured using the index at the commencement date; and
the exercise price of purchase options, if the Company is reasonably certain it would exercise the options.
Variable rents that do not depend on an index or rate and which are not in-substance fixed lease payments (for example, payments that are determined as a percentage of sales) are not included in the measurement of the lease liability and the right-of-use asset. The related payments are recognized as an expense in the period in which the event or condition that triggers those payments occurs and are included in store operating expenses in the statements of operations.
For variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate (such as the consumer price index or a market interest rate), on the commencement date, the lease payments were initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date. The Company does not remeasure the lease liability for changes in future lease payments arising from changes in an index or rate unless the lease liability is remeasured for another reason. Therefore, after initial recognition, such variable lease payments are recognized in statements of operations as they are incurred.
The Company determines if the lease is an operating lease or a financing lease and recognizes right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for all leases, except for short-term leases (lease term of one year or less) and leases of low value assets. For these leases, the Company recognizes lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
At the commencement date, the lease liability is measured at the present value of future lease payments that are not paid at that date (not including payments made at the commencement date of the lease), discounted generally using the relevant incremental borrowing rate, and presented as a separate line item in the consolidated balance sheets. The operating lease liability is subsequently remeasured each period at the present value of future lease payments that are not paid at that date. The financing lease liability is subsequently measured by increasing the carrying amount to reflect interest on the lease liability (using the effective interest method) and by reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments made.
Some of the lease agreements include an increase in the consumer price index coupled with a multiplier and a percentage increase cap effectively assures the cap will be reached each year. The Company determined, based on past experience and consumer price index increase expectations, that these types of variable payments are in-substance fixed payments and such payments are included in the measurement of the lease liabilities as of the date of the initial lease liability measurement.
The Company remeasures the lease liability (and makes corresponding adjustments to the related right-of-use asset) whenever the following occurs:
the lease term has changed as a result of, among other factors, a change in the assessment of exercising an extension option or a purchase option that results from the occurrence of a significant event or a significant change in circumstances that is within the Company’s control, in which case the lease liability is remeasured by discounting the revised lease payments using a revised discount rate; or
a lease contract is modified and the lease modification is not accounted for as a separate lease, in which case the lease liability is remeasured by discounting the revised lease payments using a revised discount rate. For lease modifications that decrease the scope of the lease, the lessee recognizes in profit or loss any gain or loss relating to the partial or full termination of the lease.
The right-of-use asset is measured at cost and presented as a separate line item in the consolidated balance sheets. The cost of the right-of-use asset comprises the initial measurement of the corresponding lease liability, lease payments made at or before the commencement date, and any initial direct costs. In business combinations, the amount is adjusted to reflect favorable or unfavorable terms of the lease relative to market terms. Subsequently, the right-of-use asset under operating leases is measured at the carrying amount of the lease liability, adjusted for prepaid or accrued lease payments, unamortized lease incentives received and accumulated
impairment losses. The right-of-use asset under financing leases is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Whenever the Company incurs an obligation for costs (either on the commencement date or consequently) to dismantle and remove a leased asset, restore the site on which it is located, or restore the underlying asset to the condition required by the terms and conditions of the lease, a provision is recognized. The costs are included in the related right-of-use asset.
Right-of-use assets under financing leases are depreciated based on the straight-line method over the shorter period of lease term and the useful life of the underlying asset, with weighted average depreciation periods are as follows:
If the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the Company by the end of the lease term or if the cost of the right-of-use asset reflects that the Company will exercise a purchase option, the Company will depreciate the right-of-use asset from the commencement date to the end of the useful life of the underlying asset.
The Company adjusts the right-of-use asset and as a result, the depreciation period in the following periods when it remeasures the respective lease liability as described above.
The Company as Lessor
Leases for which the Company is a lessor are classified as financing or operating leases. When the Company is an intermediate lessor, it accounts for the head lease and the sublease as separate contracts. The sublease is classified as a financing or operating lease by reference to the head lease’s underlying asset.
Rental income from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Rental income on leased and subleased property to independent dealers and other third-parties is recognized on a straight-line basis based upon the term of the tenant’s lease or sublease.
New Accounting Pronouncements Adopted During 2021
Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes – In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The amendments in this ASU simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in ASC 740. The amendments also improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for other areas of ASC 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance, such as the accounting for a franchise tax (or similar tax) that is partially based on income. This standard is effective January 1, 2021 for the Company. The adoption of this guidance had no material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Reference Rate Reform – In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) - Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This standard included optional guidance for a limited period of time to help ease the burden in accounting for the effects of reference rate reform. The new standard is effective for all entities through December 31, 2022. The Company is examining the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef